(Data Science Institute at Columbia) In a first of its kind study, researchers from Columbia's Rafael Yuste's Laboratory used cellular resolution in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in mice to investigate changes in the local repertoire of neuronal micro states during anesthesia. The team found that anesthesia disrupts the number of neural patterns by reducing both network micro states and neuronal ensembles in the cortex, and confirmed their findings in micro electrode array recordings from two human subjects. Their results are published today in the journal 'Cell Systems.'
(Boyce Thompson Institute) Maria Harrison, William H. Crocker Professor at Boyce Thompson Institute and Adjunct Professor in the School of Integrative Plant Science at Cornell University, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences.At BTI, researchers in Harrison's lab study the mechanisms by which flowering plants exchange nutrients with symbiotic soil fungi, which could eventually help reduce the use of fertilizer in agriculture.
(University of Montreal) Infants less than six months old with Noonan Syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure normally have a poor prognosis, with a one-year survival rate of 34%. In the new study, doctors used Trametinib to try to treat NS in two patients.They observed dramatic improvement of clinical and cardiac status in the patients only three months after treatment.
(Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute) A hijacked hormone may zombify spiders, altering their web-spinning behavior to favor wasp parasites.
(University of Plymouth) Researchers from the University of Plymouth's International Marine Litter Research Unit examined the degradation of five plastic bag materials widely available from high street retailers in the UK.
(American Institute of Physics) An international group of researchers has taken one of the first major steps in finding the biological changes in the brain that drive fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. New work using chaos theory to analyze brain signals, discussed in the journal Chaos, shows the long-term effects. Researchers found that teenagers who were exposed to alcohol while in the womb showed altered brain connections that were consistent with impaired cognitive performance.
(DOE/Argonne National Laboratory) Argonne scientists have further explored a new effect that enhances their ability to control the direction of electron spin in certain materials. Their discovery may lead to more powerful and energy-efficient materials for information storage.
(Lawson Health Research Institute) New studies from Lawson Health Research Institute and Western University have found for the first time that HIV can be transmitted through the sharing of equipment used to prepare drugs before injection and that a simple intervention - heating the equipment with a cigarette lighter for 10 seconds - can destroy the HIV virus, preventing that transmission. The findings, used to inform a public health campaign called 'Cook Your Wash,' have helped reduce rates of HIV transmission in London, Ontario.
(Penn State) Chunshan Song, distinguished professor of fuel science in the John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and director of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' Energy Institute at Penn State, received the 2019 George A. Olah Award in Hydrocarbon or Petroleum Chemistry from the American Chemical Society. He was presented with the award at ACS National Meeting, held March 31 through April 4 in Orlando, Florida.
(University of Tokyo) In a recent study in mice, researchers found a way to deliver specific drugs to parts of the body that are exceptionally difficult to access. Their Y-shaped block catiomer (YBC) binds with certain therapeutic materials forming a package 18 nanometers wide. The package is less than one-fifth the size of those produced in previous studies, so can pass through much smaller gaps. This allows YBCs to slip through tight barriers in cancers of the brain or pancreas.
(International Cytokine & Interferon Society) The International Cytokine & Interferon Society (ICIS) announced today that the Seymour and Vivian Milstein Award for Excellence in Cytokine and Interferon Research (The 'Milstein Award') has been bestowed on two world leaders in deciphering the fundamental mechanisms of innate immunity in directing cytokine driven responses. Akiko Iwasaki, Ph.D., and Hao Wu, Ph.D., will share the 2019 Milstein Award at the 31st Milstein Award ceremony on October 20 at Cytokines 2019, in Vienna, Austria.
(Queensland University of Technology) Researchers in Australia at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) and QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute have found that the dengue fever mosquito common to north and central Queensland poses the greatest danger of spreading the Zika virus in Australia.The researchers showed that not only was the dengue mosquito effective at transmitting Zika, the virus was also in the mosquitoes' reproductive organs. This finding suggests that Zika could persist in mosquito populations by females passing it to their offspring.
(University of Arizona Health Sciences) World-renowned neurobiologists and leaders in chemistry will discuss the brain circuits underlying acute and chronic pain, reward, motivation and addiction, as well as the development of chemical probes as potential novel therapies. The symposium is co-sponsored by the University of Arizona College of Medicine - Tucson Department of Pharmacology and Interim Dean Irving Kron, M.D.
(Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences ) Recently, researchers at the Caltech Optical Imaging Laboratory, directed by Lihong Wang, developed a technique for in vivo super-resolution PACT. It breaks the acoustic diffraction limit by localizing the centers of single dyed droplets flowing in blood vessels. This technique resolves brain blood vessels at a six-fold finer resolution. The research has been published in Light: Science and Applications.
(University of Michigan) The benefits of self-driving cars will likely induce vehicle owners to drive more, and those extra miles could partially or completely offset the potential energy-saving benefits that automation may provide, according to a new University of Michigan study.