(University of Hawaii at Manoa) Patches of coral reef are often surrounded by very large 'halos' of bare sand that are hundreds to thousands of square meters. Two recently published studies and a third feature story led by Elizabeth Madin, assistant research professor at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, shed light on these enigmatic features that are visible from space.
(Ohio State University) New research on tube anemones is challenging everything that evolutionary biologists thought they knew about sea animal genetics. The mitochondrial DNA of the tube anemone, or Ceriantharia, is a real head scratcher, from its unexpected arrangement to its previously unimagined magnitude.
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) An MIT research team that has already conquered the problem of getting ketchup out of its bottle has now tackled a new category of consumer and manufacturing woe: how to get much thicker materials to slide without sticking or deforming.
(PSE Healthy Energy) More than 80 percent of all waste from Pennsylvania's oil and gas drilling operations stays inside the state, according to a new study that tracks the disposal locations of liquid and solid waste from these operations across 26 years. Numerous human health hazards have been associated with waste from oil and gas extraction, including potential exposure to compounds known to cause cancer.
(Ecological Society of America) Researchers use GPS to track the timing and patterns of giant tortoise migration over multiple years. The tortoises often take the same migration routes over many years in order to find optimal food quality and temperatures. The timing of this migration is essential for keeping their energy levels high, and climate change could disrupt a tortoise's ability to migrate at the right time.
(Concordia University) A study of solitary tsunami-style wave clusters shows how they move in harmony with and through each other.
(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) When it comes to understanding future climate, the south Asian summer monsoon offers a paradox. Most climate models predict that as human-caused global warming increases, monsoon rain and wind will become more intense -- but weather data collected in the region shows that rainfall has actually declined over the past 50 years.
(American Phytopathological Society) The 2018 Mississippi State University Row Crop Short Course, held in December, showcased presentations by growers, industry experts, and row crop specialists on topics such as nematode management, weed control, off-target movement of herbicides, and the 2019 economic outlook. Twenty of those presentations can be viewed online.
(DOE/US Department of Energy) The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science has selected 70 graduate students from across the nation for its 2018 Solicitation 2 cycle for Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) Program.
(Carnegie Mellon University) Researchers sought to estimate the effects of exposure to lead in topsoil on the cognitive ability of 5-year-olds in the United States. The study found that higher lead in topsoil significantly increases the probability that 5-year-old boys will have cognitive difficulties but does not seem to affect 5-year-old girls. The researchers found the adverse effects in boys even in U.S. counties where the government considers the levels of lead concentration in the soil to be low.
(Geological Society of America) Steps and pools are among the most stable and functionally important features in the mountain river landscape. Their stability is important for dissipating stream energy, withstanding ordinary floods and resisting erosion, and regulating the flow and sediment dynamics feeding into lowland areas.
(University of California - Santa Cruz) A new method for reconstructing changes in nitrogen sources over time has enabled scientists to connect excess nutrients in the coastal waters of West Maui, Hawaii, to a sewage treatment facility that injects treated wastewater into the ground.
(Iowa State University) A new grant will help Iowa State University researchers find answers to how quickly environmental benefits emerge after the installation of prairie strips among row crops and how long those benefits last after the strips are removed. The project also will involve computer modeling of topsoil depth and an economic analysis
(Michigan State University) Michigan State University will share almost $3 million to develop a freshwater recovery system to extract clean irrigation water from hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The reclaimed water could help dry western states that need water for crops and livestock.
(International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) According to an independent study released today by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the Council on Energy, Environment, and Water (CEEW), more than 674 million Indian citizens are likely to breathe air with high concentrations of PM2.5 in 2030, even if India were to comply with its existing pollution control policies and regulations.